The Federalist Papers comprise 85 articles published under the pseudonym “Publius” in New York newspapers between 1787 and 1788, written to convince residents to ratify the Constitution. John Jay wrote 5 papers, while Alexander Hamilton and James Madison wrote the remaining 80. Between the last two authors there are conflicting accounts of which author wrote which paper. Most sources agree on the authorships of 65 papers (51 by Hamilton and 14 by Madison), but 15 papers are in dispute.

In one of the earliest examples of statistical text analysis, F. Mosteller and D. L. Wallace used a form of Naive Bayes classification to identify the authorships of the 15 disputed papers, finding strong evidence that Madison was the author of all of the disputed papers.



A data frame with 85 rows, one for each paper.



Mosteller, F and Wallace, D. L. (1963). Inference in an authorship problem. Journal of the American Statistical Association 58 275--309.